Government Agency
What Is CBI & ED?

What Is CBI & ED?

CBI – Central Bureau of Investigation

Central Bureau of Investigation - Wikipedia

The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating agency of India. The agency has been known to investigate several economic crimes, special crimes, cases of corruption and other high-profile cases.  It is an elite force playing a major role in preservation of values in public life and in ensuring the health of the national economy. CBI as an organisation is held in high esteem by the Supreme Court, the High Courts, the Parliament and the public. The CBI has to investigate major crimes in the country having interstate and international ramifications.

The following broad categories of criminal cases are handled by the CBI:

  1. Cases of corruption and fraud committed by public servants of all Central Govt. Departments, Central Public Sector Undertakings and Central Financial Institutions.
  2. Economic crimes, including bank frauds, financial frauds, Import Export & Foreign Exchange violations, large-scale smuggling of narcotics, antiques, cultural property and smuggling of other contraband items etc.
  3. Special Crimes, such as cases of terrorism, bomb blasts, sensational homicides, kidnapping for ransom and crimes committed by the mafia/the underworld.

CBI may investigate:

  • Cases which are essentially against the Central Govt. employees or concerning affairs of the Central Govt.
  • Cases in which the financial interests of the Central Government are involved.
  • Cases relating to the breaches of Central Laws with the enforcement of which the Government of India is mainly concerned.
  • Big cases of fraud, cheating, embezzlement and the like relating to companies in which large funds are involved and similar other cases when committed by organised gangs or professional criminals having ramifications in several States.
  • Cases having interstate and international ramifications involving several official agencies where, from all angles, it is considered necessary that a single investigating agency should be incharge of the investigation.

ED – Enforcement Directorate

The Directorate of Enforcement (ED) is a law enforcement agency and economic intelligence agency. The ED is responsible for enforcing economic laws and fighting economic crime in India. ED is responsible for enforcement of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA), and certain provisions under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA). 

What does ED do? 

  1.  Investigates suspected violations of the provisions of the FEMA. Suspected violations include; non-realization of export proceeds, “hawala transactions”, purchase of assets abroad, possession of foreign currency in huge amounts, non-repatriation of foreign exchange, foreign exchange violations, and other forms of violations under FEMA.
  2. Collects, develops, and disseminates intelligence information related to violations of FEMA, 1999. The ED receives intelligence inputs from Central and State Intelligence agencies, complaints, etc.
  3.  ED has the power to attach the asset of the culprits found guilty of the violation of FEMA. “Attachment of the assets” means prohibition of transfer, conversion, disposition or movement of property by an order issued under Chapter III of the Money Laundering Act [Section 2(1) (d)].
  4.  To undertake, search, seizure, arrest, prosecution action, and survey, etc. against offenders of PMLA offence.
  5.  To provide and seek mutual legal assistance to/from respective states in respect of attachment/confiscation of proceeds of crime and handed over the transfer of accused persons under the Money Laundering Act.
  6.  To settle cases of violations of the erstwhile FERA, 1973 and FEMA, 1999, and to decide penalties imposed on the conclusion of settlement proceedings.

ED plays a  crucial role in fighting the menace of corruption in the country. 

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