Covid-19 Vaccine: Top 5 Candidates | August Update
With confirmed COVID-19 cases worldwide crossing 9 million and continuing to grow, scientists are pushing forward with efforts to develop vaccines and treatments to slow the pandemic and lessen the disease’s damage. In July 2020, a total of 218 vaccine candidates were in development, although no candidate has completed clinical trials. In July, 24 vaccine candidates were announced or undergoing clinical trials, with two beginning Phase III and seven in Phase I-II.
Let’s have a look at how far they’ve come.
1. Inactivated Vaccine ( China ):
Institution: Henan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention
The first WHO enlisted global clinical Phase 3 trial of China’s inactivated vaccine has begun in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The vaccine produced antibodies in every participant in Phase 1/2 clinical trials. The UAE was selected to conduct the trials as the nation is home to over 200 nationalities, allowing for robust research across multiple ethnicities and increasing its feasibility for global application.
2. CoronaVac ( China ):
Institution: Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd.
In June the company announced that Phase 1/2 trials on 743 volunteers found no severe adverse effects and produced an immune response. Sinovac then launched a Phase III trial in Brazil in July. The company is also building a facility to manufacture up to 100 million doses annually
3. mRNA-1273 ( USA ):
Institution: Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute
Moderna develops vaccines based on messenger RNA (mRNA) to produce viral proteins in the body. In partnership with the National Institutes of Health, they found that the vaccine can protect monkeys from the coronavirus. In March, the company put the first Covid-19 vaccine into human trials, which yielded promising results. After carrying out a Phase II study they launched a Phase III trial on July 27. The final trial will enroll 30,000 healthy people at about 89 sites around the United States.
4. AZD1222 ( Oxford, UK )
It is in development by the British-Swedish company AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford is based on a chimpanzee adenovirus called ChAdOx1. A study on monkeys found that the vaccine provided them protection. Their Phase I/II trial, reported on July 20, found that the vaccine was safe, causing no severe side effects. It raised antibodies against the coronavirus as well as other immune defenses. The vaccine is now in a Phase 2/3 trial in England, as well as Phase III trials in Brazil and South Africa. The project may deliver emergency vaccines by October. AstraZeneca has said their total manufacturing capacity for it, if approved, stands at two billion doses.
5. BNT162 Vaccine( Germany + USA )
Institution: Multiple study sites in Europe and North America
The German company BioNTech has entered into collaborations with Pfizer, based in New York, and the Chinese drugmaker Fosun Pharma to develop their mRNA vaccine. In July, they posted preliminary results from their Phase 1/2 trials. They found that the volunteers produced antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, as well as immune cells called T-cells that respond to the virus. Some volunteers experienced moderate side effects such as sleep disturbances and sore arms. On July 27, they announced the launch of a Phase 2/3 trial with 30,000 volunteers in the United States and other countries including Argentina, Brazil, and Germany.
So we are soon meeting the deadend of this pandemic. This pandemic will be remembered history for centuries and we witnessed it. A lot of people are losing their lives due to COVID-19 and a vaccine will save millions of people. World will soon return to normal and we will be able to resume or lives again.
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